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WIPO’s COVID-19 Related Services and Support

The following package outlines WIPO’s suite of support measures to assist Member States in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as laying the foundations for post COVID economic recovery efforts. It comprises five main areas: policy and legislative assistance; technical assistance and capacity building; innovation support and technology transfer; IP dispute resolution; and knowledge resources

Member States seeking more information or wishing to tap on these forms of unilateral support should contact Mr. Sherif Saadallah, Executive Director of the WIPO Academy and Focal Point on WIPO’s Package of COVID-19 support.

Member States seeking more information on the WIPO-WTO-WHO Trilateral Cooperation relating to COVID-19 should contact Ms. Amy Dietterich, Director of the Global Challenges Division.


Policy and Legislative Assistance

Legislative and Policy Advice relating to IP, innovation and creativity

WIPO has decades of experience in providing advice to Member States on the drafting of IP laws as well as in the building of innovation and creative ecosystems. We will draw on this to provide advice to Member States on specific or systemic measures that will help them to address the pandemic, as well as build back better. Some examples of assistance in the past include the implementation of flexibilities contained in the international treaties. Other examples include the building of tech transfer and/or IP licensing capabilities.

Such advisory support is strictly bilateral and confidential, and will be tailor made to suit each Member State’s unique circumstances and needs.


Technical Assistance and Capacity-Building

WIPO Academy

WIPO National IP Training Institutions (IPTIs) will scale up COVID-related training and education programs. Areas of focus include: IP and Access to Medicines, IP and Medical Innovation (with focus on COVID-related medical innovation) and IP as an open collaboration tool to address COVID.  The Academy will assist the IPTIs to provide training courses focused on post-COVID economic recovery through innovation and creativity.

WIPO’s Distance Learning and Professional Development Courses provide an accessible way for Member States, communities and individuals, to build their IP knowledge and skills.  Customized versions of the courses also offer country specific IP learning.  WIPO’s professional development courses focus on building IP skills for government officials to support innovation and creativity. Distance learning courses of particular relevance include:

WIPO – WHO – WTO Intensified Cooperation

As part of our enhanced cooperation to support Member States in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic, the WIPO, WHO and WTO will jointly offer a series of practical, capacity-building workshops. These have two overarching objectives: to enhance the flow of information as the pandemic evolves and to strengthen the capacity of Member States to address the pandemic via equitable access to COVID-19 health technologies.  The first workshop on technology transfer and licensing is planned to take place in the second half of September 2021.

The Trilateral Cooperation is also discussing how to step up efforts for tripartite technical assistance to Member States, through the provision of a one-stop shop that will make available the full expertise on access, IP and trade matters of all three agencies. More details will be provided in due course.

IP and Health/Life Sciences

  • Executive Course on Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation
  • Executive Course on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources in the Life Sciences
  • Leadership Course on Intellectual Property and the Life Sciences for Participants in the L’Oréal-UNESCO for Women in Science Program

Patents

  • Specialization Course on the Essentials of Patents
  • eTutorial on Using Patent Information
  • Advanced Course on Patent Information Search

Innovation Support and Technology Transfer

WIPO Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISC)

Member States can tap on our expertise in building over 1,200 Technology and Innovation Support Centers in over 80 countries. These Centers provide innovators and researchers in developing countries with access to locally based, high quality technology information and related services that will help them better understand and use IP in the R&D and technology contexts.  WIPO also provides a series of programs and training resources, including WIPO Distance Learning courses, to support the building of IP expertise and capabilities within these TISCs.


IP Dispute Resolution

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center (WIPO AMC)

Some 15% of mediation and arbitration cases filed with the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center(WIPO AMC) are connected to the biosciences, medical devices and chemical industries. These disputes do not just involve large companies, but also SMEs and start-ups. The WIPO AMC has just announced that it will reduce its fees by 25% when any enterprise with less than 250 employees is involved in a dispute, so that start-ups and SMEs can have better access to such services.

In addition, the AMC is preparing to launch two new services in the last quarter of the year:

  • Tailored WIPO Mediation Agreements:  to facilitate contract negotiation or the resolution of contract performance disputes.
  • WIPO Dispute Resolution Board: to determine contract performance disputes as they arise in long-term life science collaborations.

Further information on WIPO ADR in the life sciences sector


Knowledge Resources

Covid-19 IP Policy Tracker

WIPO tracks and provides information on measures adopted by IP offices in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including information connected to deadlines, legislative responses and other regulatory measures.

Database on Flexibilities in the Intellectual Property (IP) System

The Database on Flexibilities in the IP System contains data drawn from WIPO documents on Patent Related Flexibilities in the Multilateral Legal Framework and their Legislative Implementation at the National and Regional Levels.  It allows searches for implementation of flexibilities in national IP laws in selected jurisdictions.

Pat-INFORMED

The Patent Information Initiative for Medicines (Pat-INFORMED) provides easy access to medicine patent information to the global health community, particularly those involved in procurement of medicines. As of June 2021, the database contained 236 International Non Proprietary Name (INN) sets, and 21,029 patents in 653 patent families.

Patent Landscape Reports (PLR) and Analytics

Patent Landscape Reports are a way of using patent information and data to gather and share insights on technology developments. WIPO has supported the WHO and local vaccine manufacturing discussions with its PLR on vaccines; licensing and public procurement discussions; and decisions of the Medicines Patent Pool related to antirotrevirals (ritonavir and Atazanavir).  WIPO is currently preparing a PLR relating to vaccines and therapeutic agents specifically targeting COVID-19 and hopes to release it just ahead of this year’s General Assemblies. WIPO has also collected publicly available PLRs and has put together a searchable compilation.

dashboard_845

Online dashboard to monitor WIPO operations

Download July 29, 2021 update

Download June 7, 2021 update


Meetings and webinars

We have increased our offerings of virtual meetings and webinars to accommodate for COVID-19 restrictions and them more accessible worldwide.

(PHOTO: WIPO/BERROD)

WIPO virtual and hybrid meetings

Delegates can participate remotely and interactively in our formal meetings, thanks to a multi-lingual, cloud-based, virtual conferencing platform.

WIPO webinars

We organize free webinars for the latest information and training on WIPO services, databases and program activities.

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Related News

WBG

In a world where access to financial services and high-speed broadband internet is not universal or affordable, fintech can democratize access to finance and the world can move closer to achieving financial inclusion. 

At the World Bank Group (WBG), we look at financial inclusion across three dimensions – ‘Access, Usage, and Quality’ of financial services.  Fintech has the potential to lower costs, while increasing speed and accessibility, allowing for more tailored financial services that can scale. Over the last decade, 1.2 billion previously unbanked adults gained access to financial services, and the unbanked population fell by 35%, primarily boosted by the increase in mobile money accounts.  While globally 1.7 billion adults remain unbanked, fintech is helping make financial services more accessible to an increasing number of people.

Beyond mobile money, fintech has also shown promise in areas such as Government to Person payments and cross-border remittances. Our paper on Digital Financial Services explains how this potential has been apparent during the COVID-19 crisis, when digital delivery channels have helped governments quickly and securely reach vulnerable consumers with cash transfers and emergency liquidity – allowing the transfer of funds with limited physical contact.

Global remittances in particular may see a complete transformation through the use of technology. Cross-border remittances account for $600bn in value and often exceed official developmental aid figures. The average global cost to send these funds in the form of cash is 6.8 percent, while a fully digital transaction drops the cost to 3.3 percent and reduces issues of liquidity.

Digital disruption, however, is not new, and we have long been able to summon movies, food and transportation at the touch of a button. Yet, the impact on the financial sector is different, primarily due to a) the impact it can have on financial integrity and stability b) new entrants with unconventional business models that don’t fit neatly into existing legal frameworks and are difficult to monitor and c) the bearing on consumer protection.

This has led to a dilemma for policymakers worldwide when trying to achieve the right balance between enabling innovative fintech and safeguarding the financial system. They have taken different approaches- such as the use of regulatory sandboxes to direct regulatory amendments, which we highlight in our paper on Evaluating different fintech approaches.

Despite their utility, innovative technologies do have inherent risk. Fraud, issues of competition, data leakage, and unprotected consumer funds number among them. Responsible financial innovation requires balancing opportunity and innovation with safeguards to protect consumers. Our forthcoming paper on Consumer Risks in Fintech provides an overview new manifestation of risks to consumers and emerging approaches that can help mitigate such risks.

At the WBG, we support digital transformation in our client countries by:

  • Building the financial infrastructure and foundational building blocks including the regulatory and policy frameworks, digitally-enabled identity, and robust payment and credit infrastructures for sustainable, technology-led financial economies.
  • Boosting the capacity of governments to harness fintech, data, and expertise while responding proactively to changing regulatory and supervisory requirements.
  • Brokering collaboration between different players- both public and private- in the financial ecosystem to bring about symbiotic positive change.

One specific area where the WBG has been focusing its efforts is on the gender lens and the plight of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs). For instance, in India and in Ethiopia we are supporting women-led MSMEs – mostly vendors, seamstresses or marginal farmers – in using digital platforms. Working closely with the governments and fintechs on the ground, we are developing an application to support digital literacy while delivering targeted business insights and advice. Moreover, this data along with other alternative data such as repayment of store credit and collaborative behaviors will contribute to a credit score providing a route for access to finance to those without formal credit histories. The use of alternative data is gaining popularity in a number of other countries from Chile to Sierra Leone where  innovative solutions harness the value of transaction data from ecommerce and payment platforms, mobile phones, or even social networks as alternative sources of information to assess creditworthiness. This is financial empowerment in action—especially when combined with measures to protect consumers and financial education to prevent over-indebtedness.

Another important technology that is being tested for its role in developing markets and inclusion is distributed ledger technology (DLT). The WBG is working with the government of Haiti to export their high quality mangoes and avocados using DLT. This supports the supply chain and maintains symmetry of information hence de-risking the investment of third parties that conduct the quality control while allowing the farmer to keep ownership until the final sale to the consumer.

Financial inclusion, however, is not only a goal in itself, but also a means to an end as an enabler and accelerator of economic growth.  It has a multiplier effect, contributes to the economic development and stability of a country, and aids the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Through our work, we aim to give the 1.7 billion remaining unbanked —mostly poor, mostly women—access to basic financial services, and we are using fintech to help us. We take a minute to pause and to learn from our experiences, build on the progress made so far, and look into the future—to the next 20 years—as our journey continues.

This article was first published in the Fintech times- Edition 39’.

In a world where access to financial services and high-speed broadband internet is not universal or affordable, fintech can democratize access to finance and the world can move closer to...

WCO

In many countries, statistics show a strong uptake of online sales and a big increase in the market share of online as opposed to offline retail since the start of the pandemic. In COVID-19 and e-commerce: a global review, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development reported that Latin America’s online marketplace Mercado Libre, for example, sold twice as many items per day in the second quarter of 2020 as during the same period in the previous year; African e-commerce platform Jumia reported a 50% jump in transactions during the first six months of 2020.

The three members of the Global Express Association (DHL, FedEx and UPS) have also seen a massive increase in the volumes of non-document shipments they carry.  During the first wave of the pandemic – February to June 2020 – their volumes grew by 50%. Part of this increase was medical equipment (PPEs, masks, etc.), but a substantial proportion was made up of other types of items.

Consumers went online – many millions of them for the first time – because they could not go out to the shop round the corner. Some observers believe that many will return to the shops when they re-open, but many will continue to shop online. In other words, the volumes of shipments of goods purchased online will stay strong during the recovery from the pandemic.

It is more difficult to find data on international online sales, but here as well, volumes are reported to be increasing. When the COVID-19 outbreak became global early in 2020, initial uncertainty and transport disruption caused a dip in international online sales, but according to cross-border e-commerce solution provider eShopWorld, they rebounded in April 2020 and then rose to unprecedented levels throughout the course of 2020.

It has in fact been pointed out that facilitating cross-border e-commerce could help with the economic recovery, provided there is due emphasis on the need to ensure that the smallest traders can avail themselves of the export opportunities this brings.

Many countries have established thresholds below which no duties and taxes are levied and only minimal information is required to be provided when a consignment enters a country. While the value of this threshold varies a lot, in most countries the exponential increase in the sale of physical products online translates into an increasing number of “low-value” shipments crossing a border. Controlling this particular flow of goods to prevent the movement of prohibited and restricted goods, and identify consignments which have been split and/or undervalued to evade duties and taxes, presents a number of challenges.

The pressing issue is how to manage this time-sensitive flow of goods without placing a strain on control operations and on the capacity of logistics service providers, and without creating complex procedures and a heavy workload for small businesses and individuals who have limited capacity to meet complex trade regulations.

WCO STANDARDS AND GUIDANCE MATERIAL

To address this issue, WCO Members have been working through a multi-stakeholder Working Group on E-Commerce (WGEC)[1] on the development of international norms and guidance material, which have been brought together in an E-Commerce Package including not only a Framework of Standards on cross-border e-commerce (E-Commerce FoS), but also many tools to support its implementation.

The Framework provides 15 baseline global standards with a focus on the exchange of advance electronic data (AED) for effective risk management. It also encourages the use of the Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) concept, non-intrusive inspection (NII) equipment, data analytics, and other cutting-edge technologies to support safe, secure and sustainable cross-border e-commerce.

Now is the time for implementation, and a broad capacity building action plan which will guide the WCO Secretariat’s activities in the coming months has recently been added to the Package, along with key performance indicators (KPIs) which will make it possible to monitor the implementation of the WCO standards and identify capacity building needs.

In January 2021, the Secretariat started rolling out regional workshops to ensure that all WCO Members had a good knowledge of the Package; these workshops included representatives of the Universal Postal Union (UPU), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Global Express Association (GEA) and e-commerce stakeholders.

As a next step, in 2022 national workshops will be planned for administrations that have notified their intention to implement the E-Commerce FoS, completed an assessment using the WCO KPIs and made an official request to the Secretariat. The Secretariat has already accredited 11 Technical and Operational Advisers on E-Commerce so it can respond positively to such requests for assistance.

MAIN CHALLENGES AND TOPICS DISCUSSED

Areas posing specific challenges were identified during the regional workshops. They include the collection of electronic advance information on e-commerce shipments, the improvement of compliance and data quality, the simplification of duty and tax payment procedures which are often too complex, and the strengthening of risk analysis capacities. The topics discussed included expanding the concept of Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) to include e-commerce stakeholders, the use of advanced technologies, and cooperation with stakeholders such as marketplaces, fulfilment centers and free zones/warehouses.

GOVERNMENTS AND BUSINESS NEED TO MEET THIS CHALLENGE TOGETHER

In the same spirit as the regional workshops, on 28 and 29 June 2021 the Secretariat held its Second Global Conference on Cross-Border E-Commerce, thanks to the financial support of the Customs Cooperation Fund of Japan. Some speakers highlighted the tremendous degree of dynamism and also the variety observed in countries nowadays in the area of cross-border e-commerce approaches, legislation and capacity; for example, the ability to analyse data for risk assessment purposes varies a lot between national agencies and countries. Moreover, while the underlying technology enabling data exchange may be similar in terms of its fundamental logic, the requirements differ from one administration to another.

One of the objectives of the workshops and the Conferences has been to enable Customs to share processes and procedures, as well as to better understand the e-commerce “ecosystem” and its business models. Other forums also exist at the national level, with more and more Customs administrations creating working groups with e-commerce stakeholders as they review their legal and operational frameworks. At a higher level, companies have started building their own cooperation frameworks with some governments in order to explore new policies and rules in support of trade.

DOSSIER CONTENTS

For the “Dossier” in this Edition, we have invited several administrations to share information on the initiatives they are taking to enhance their capacity to control the compliance of “low value” shipments.

We start with an article by Argentina Customs, explaining how the Administration is reviewing its legal, policy and operational framework to ensure it is aligned with the WCO E-Commerce FoS and other WCO guidance material. The article does not describe the procedures in place to process the flows of goods generated by online sales in Argentina, but interested readers can consult the WCO Compendium of Case Studies on E-Commerce to which Argentina Customs contributed. Instead, the article focuses on the various steps of the review process.

This is followed by an article by United States Customs and Border Protection about two test programmes it recently conducted to assess the possibility of collecting certain advance data related to shipments potentially eligible for release under its de minimis entry process, and to implement a new entry process for such shipments.

Next, the use of three types of technology to enhance targeting capacities is described in an article by the Korea Customs Service. These technologies are blockchain, artificial intelligence and big data. The Administration also shares some interesting lessons, highlighting the fact that successful technology-focused projects aim to find solutions to actual issues faced by operational officers, and that teamwork between ICT and Customs experts is critical.

The last article introduces Peru Customs’ new clearance process for express shipments, as well as the web platform and mobile application it has developed to enable importers to track the status of their shipments and pay duties and taxes at authorized banking institutions. Not only has the new process enabled the Administration to improve its risk management procedures, it has also significantly reduced the time required for the release of goods.

Even if every country’s situation is unique, I believe that it is still important to ensure experiences are shared and initiatives explained. More and more Customs administrations are looking at how to review or enhance their legal and operational frameworks in line with WCO standards and guidance tools. I warmly encourage them to contact us should they wish to communicate on their eff

[1] The Working Group comprised representatives from governments, the private sector, international organizations, E-Commerce stakeholders, and academia.

In many countries, statistics show a strong uptake of online sales and a big increase in the market share of online as opposed to offline retail since the start of the pandemic. In COVID-19 and e-commerce:...

WBG

The World Bank approved a $150 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA) in support of the Government of Mozambique’s Digital Governance and  Economy Project (EDGE), which focuses on increasing access to civil identification, digital public services and improving digital business opportunities.

“Sixty percent of the Mozambican population lacks official civil identification.This leads to disenfranchisement and leaves large portions of the population, a majority of whom are women, without legal identity, preventing them from accessing schooling, and later in life financial services, pensions, formal jobs, entitlement claims and property transactions,” noted Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough, World Bank Country Director for Mozambique, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius and Seychelles.

The EDGE project comprises investment and technical assistance activities, and is structured around four mutually reinforcing components as follows:

  • Component 1 will focus on two critical aspects of digital transformation: institutional capacity and government connectivity. The objectives of this component are to strengthen the government’s capacity to leverage technologies for improved service delivery, while increasing public sector connectivity across the country.
  • Component 2 will facilitate access to legal identification for all citizens, while supporting the development of digital government services. The main beneficiaries of this component will be citizens who lack legal identification, public service users, as well as public and private organizations relying on identity credentials for the provision of services.
  • Component 3 will support the growth of the digital private sector by supporting digital SMEs to take advantage of business opportunities created through digitalization efforts in the public sector. Activities under this component, in collaboration with the private sector, will also seek to reduce the gender gap in the technology sector.
  • Finally, Component 4 will support effective project implementation, and ensure that the necessary coordination and change-management processes are carried out in a timely manner.

“Leveraging technology for service delivery requires putting users first, combined with strong institutional capacity to design, implement, procure and coordinate digital efforts across government. This is one important challenge this project has set out to address to achieve services that are faster, cheaper, and better,” added Tiago Peixoto, Senior Public Sector Specialist and the project’s lead.

“The project will support the development of Mozambique’s digital business ecosystem in order to take advantage of business opportunities that digitalization efforts will create. It will also promote local digital start-ups and SMEs, which have the potential to grow and spur job creation,” concluded Eva Clemente Miranda, Private Sector Specialist and the project’s co-lead.

The project will leverage an existing coordination mechanism within the Ministry of Science and Technology. This project is in line with the country’s priorities outlined in its five-year plan and the World Bank’s partnership framework with Mozambique for FY 2017-22.

* The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960, helps the world’s poorest countries by providing grants and low to zero-interest loans for projects and programs that boost economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve poor people’s lives. IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 75 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. Resources from IDA bring positive change to the 1.5 billion people who live in IDA countries. Since 1960, IDA has supported development work in 113 countries. Annual commitments have averaged about $18 billion over the last three years, with about 54 percent going to Africa.

The World Bank approved a $150 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA) in support of the Government of Mozambique’s Digital Governance and  Economy Project (EDGE), which focuses on increasing access to civil identification,...

DiPLO

Trade Ministers of the G7 – a group of wealthy nations composed by the United States, Japan, Germany, Britain, France, Italy, and Canada – agreed on principles to govern digital trade. The principles covered the issues of open digital markets; cross border data flows; safeguards for workers, consumers, and businesses; digital trading systems; and fair and inclusive global governance. With regards to data flows, G7 Members expressed concern with growing data localization measures, and reinforced their support to the principle of “data free flow with trust” (DFFT). This principle had been enshrined before in the G20 Osaka Leaders Declaration from 2019. On that occasion, the ‘Osaka Track’ was launched, a process that aims to intensify efforts on international rule-making on the digital economy, especially on data flows and e-commerce. Three G20 members, India, Indonesia and South Africa, opted out of the Osaka Track.

The recently agreed G7 principles expressed indirect support to ongoing negotiations taking place at the WTO’s e-commerce Joint Statement Initiative (JSI), among a subset of the WTO membership. The WTO is mentioned as the organization where ‘common rules for digital trade should be agreed and upheld’. The G7 also expressed support for rendering the WTO Moratorium on Customs Duties on Electronic Transmissions permanent, an issue that will be discussed in the next WTO Ministerial Conference (MC-12), scheduled to take place from 30 November to 3 December in Geneva.

The G7 principles have significant political importance, as they show the will to overcome differences between the US and the EU when it comes to regulating data flows, in particular different approaches to personal data. The principles could serve as a first step towards a common rulebook of digital trade among Members. The G7 also sends a message to third parties, as they express their ‘opposition to digital protectionism and digital authoritarianism’. The principles were called a ‘genuine breakthrough’ by British officials. The UK holds the Presidency of the G7 in 2021.

Trade Ministers of the G7 – a group of wealthy nations composed by the United States, Japan, Germany, Britain, France, Italy, and Canada – agreed on principles to govern digital trade. The...

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