IMF

Handbook on Measuring Digital Trade SECOND EDITION

Handbook on Measuring Digital Trade -2nd edition

The Handbook on Measuring Digital Trade (second edition) provides a framework and practical guidance on how to measure digital trade. Building upon the first edition issued in 2019, the Handbook aims to address the challenges inherent in measuring digital trade and to establish consistent practices that will allow for comparable data across countries.

The Handbook focuses on two key elements: digitally ordered trade and digitally delivered trade. Furthermore, it highlights the important role of digital intermediation platforms (DIPs) in facilitating digital trade and addresses particular compilation challenges in measuring DIP transactions.

The Handbook represents a comprehensive agreed approach to measuring digital trade. It incorporates extensive compilation guidance based on substantive inputs and case studies from both developed and developing economies. It also provides a reporting template, facilitating the production and dissemination of digital trade statistics. The template offers flexibility to statistical compilers, even when only partial information is available.

The publication is jointly authored by the WTO, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

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IMF Trade Integration in Africa_ Unleashing the Continent's Potential in a Changing World

Trade Integration in Africa: Unleashing the Continent’s Potential in a Changing World

Since the 1960s, several initiatives have been undertaken to enhance trade integration in Africa. However, substantial tariff and nontariff barriers remain in place. In recent years, African leaders have shown a renewed push for regional integration by signing the agreement on the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). The AfCFTA has the potential to transform regional trade and thereby lift growth and support livelihoods across the continent. This paper lays out the benefits that successful AfCFTA implementation could unlock for Africa in terms of income, jobs, and other benefits. It is based on an empirical analysis of the obstacles to trade in goods and services and regional value chain integration along with a discussion of how regional trade integration and supporting policies could help African countries cope with ongoing global and domestic trends. The empirical analysis investigates the role of trade policy and the broader trade-enabling environment in determining the bilateral goods trade flows and country-level trade in services. It sheds light on how the implementation of AfCFTA and supporting policies could boost trade and income as well as help African countries integrate into regional value chains. The findings suggest that plausible reductions in tariffs and nontariff barriers under AfCFTA, along with improvements in broader trade-enabling environment (trade infrastructure, financial development, and domestic security), would substantially boost intra-African trade in goods and services, and support integration into regional value chains. Further, regional trade integration could be an important element of a strategy for African countries to cope with rapid population growth, climate change, and emerging geopolitical fragmentation.

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